For the US military, one of the most important metrics for delivering synchronized military training in joint environments is the Combat Air Force Distributed Mission Operations (CAF DMO) standard.
DMO allows disparate, geographically distributed, virtual man-in-the-loop simulators to seamlessly conduct training exercises as part of regular daily training procedures, as well as part of larger, distributed training exercises.
CAF DMO is a standard that visual 3D equipment models – such as aircraft, vehicles, personnel, and weapons – used by simulator image generators must comply with in order to operate on a DMO network.
This standard ensures that personnel training in synthetic, tactical-level, small team and Large Force Employment combat environments all see consistent 3D models, no matter which simulator platform they are using. It is critical that when a participant identifies a specific real-time entity visually or via an onboard sensor system, that other participants recognise the same model in their own distributed training system.
Decide, Detect, Deliver, and Assess
The primary focus here is for missions where multiple parties operating different platforms are working jointly against a common target. The standard eases confusion and speeds the Decide, Detect, Deliver, and Assess targeting process.
If the target is not consistent in appearance, function (articulated parts), and physics (infrared/thermal signatures) across all engaged assets, the training mission cannot be conducted successfully as the synthetic world fails to replicate the real-world. The suspension of disbelief that all trainees are operating in a shared, 3D virtual world is lost.
MVRsimulation’s extensive VRSG 3D model library includes 90% of the CAF DMO list, including 95% of those designated as mandatory – the majority with articulated parts, damage states, and accurate physics-based infrared/thermal signatures.
The VRSG 3D models list is updated continuously, with new models added on a weekly basis.
In addition to the CAF DMO standard list, MVRsimulation engineers use multiple sources to determine which new models will best support VRSG users by giving them access to aircraft, vehicles, weapon systems and maritime vessels that are relevant to their current and emerging operational theatres, including those still in development or testing. MVRsimulation also develops new models in response to customer requests, which are provided at no additional charge, as new models are relevant to all VRSG users with active software maintenance licenses.
Case study: Close Air Support
The CAF DMO standard is critical for training missions where multiple assets are involved in the identification of a single target entity, such as a Close Air Support mission that incorporates Forward Observers/JTACs, combat aircraft and RPAS assets prosecuting an enemy radar system.
During a joint training scenario using VRSG and Battlespace Simulations’ MACE software, CAF DMO compliant 3D models support the mission at every stage of the Decide, Detect, Deliver, and Assess Target cycle.
The Forward Observer/JTAC trainee operating a simulator such as MVRsimulation’s Deployable Joint Fires Trainer (DJFT) or the Joint Terminal Control Training and Rehearsal System (JTC TRS) identifies a target visually, in this case a Meraj-4 radar.
The JTAC observes the target visually and via full motion video displayed on the ATAK, and uses his SOFLAM laser target designator and DAGR GPS receiver to compute target coordinates (below).
The JTAC passes the target coordinates to the attacking aircraft, an A-10C (below).
The JTAC continues to observe the target visually and via the RPAS overwatch sensor feed provided by an MQ-9 Reaper simulator while the A-10C approaches (below).
The A-10C pilot acquires the target visually and is cleared by the JTAC to prosecute the target (below).
The Meraj-4 is visually consistent to all users within the scenario, thanks to VRSG’s 3D models being CAF DMO compliant. At the same time, all users in the scenario exist in a shared, identical geospecific virtual world – this is also critical for allowing users to identify targets by physical voice descriptions of the target relative to the terrain and culture.
In the case of the US military, all training assets in the above scenario currently use VRSG imagery, including terrain and 3D models: JTC TRS, the US JTAC simulator program of record, the A-10 full mission simulator and US Air Force MQ-9 Reaper RPA simulator system (MJAT).
In recent months, the US military has renewed a combined 1,018 VRSG software licenses to ensure they retain access to new additions to VRSG’s 3D model library and geospecific terrain databases.